After "my" TV-program I have taken a closer look at the Denisovans!
Did the Denisovans become the legendary giants in the Indian mounds of the USA? Skeleton from Pennsylvania

In the TV-program "Search for the Lost Giants" it was said that I had the theory that the Denisova hominins from Siberia could have island-hopped across the Pacific, intermarried and ended up as the large bones found in Indian mounds. Well, let us take a closer look at this theory!

First; the mainstream theory of the human development: 700.000 years ago a group of humans left Africa and spread across Europe and Central Asia. They became Neanderthals and Denisovans, and the humans they left behind became us modern Homo sapiens. It went hundreds of thousands of years before we made it out of Africa 100 to 80 thousand years ago.
    So what happened to our human cousins? Well, the scientists now believe that the Neanderthals died out about 40.000 years ago, but they do not have enough data when it comes to the Denisovans and their downfall. They believe that these three human species interbred; because some of us Homo sapiens sapiens, have genomes from both Denisovans and Neanderthals.
    Australian aborigines, New Guineans and some Pacific Islanders are said to have about 6 percent Denisovan genes, while some mainland Asian populations and Native Americans have about 0.2 percent Denisovan genes.

Click on the pictures
for more information:

Denisova cave
Denisova cave
Denosiva Cave - digging and artefacts
High speed drilling! High speed drilling!
Modern molar compared to Denisova tooth.
Modern and Denisova tooth
Terry with the tooth
Terry with the tooth
Coco Loco at Bora Bora
Coco Loco at Bora Bora
Denosiva Cave - red spot
Denisova Cave (red spot)
The Densovan migration
The Densovan migration
A large ocean!
A large ocean!
Ocean currents
Currents of the Pacific
Glidden and 8 1/2 feet skeleton
Glidden and skeleton
Indians are rising out of legend.
Catalina; 7 Feet 8 Inches
Santa Rosa Island cemetry
Santa Rosa skeletons
Indian Skeleton
Skeleton 7 feet 2 1/4 inches
Spread from Catalina?
Spread out from Catalina?
Altai statues and megaliths
Altai statues and megaliths
Salbyk kurgan before excavations
Salbyk kurgan, Altai
Siberia megaliths
Megalithic wall, Siberia
(See the man standing!)
Ukraine,2.20 m
Ukraine,2.20 m
Woman in Azerbaijan kurgan, 2.20m
Azerbaijan kurgan, 2.20m
Skeleton from Don-steppe-area, 2.10m
Don-steppe, 2.10m
Prof. Vekua showing bones
Prof. Vekua showing bones
Denisova Cave
Denisova Cave is a cave in the Bashelaksky Range of the Altai mountains in the southern part of Siberia in Russia
    In March 2010 scientists announced that they had discovered a finger bone of a young female who lived about 40,000 years ago. The finger bone was "unusually broad and robust, well outside the variation seen in modern people". Later two teeth and a toe bone were also found. An interestingly enough: In the same layer they found artefacts, including a stone bracelet, that were carbon dated to the same period.
    - The fossil was found with modern technology and ornaments, including a very beautiful bracelet, one of the researchers said.
    The bracelet that was made of polished dark green chloritolite. It was delicately shaped, highly polished, and
demonstrated a high level of technological skills; a hole for a pendant less than 8 mm wide was drilled with a tapered drill that must have been running with considerable speed!
Largest human tooth
It is difficult to say how the Denisovans looked like - what has been found in the Denisova cave is all we have so far! Some believe that the finger had belonged to a little girl with dark skin, brown hair and brown eyes, but new findings might change that view.
    The first tooth found in the cave is the largest human tooth ever found; it was so large that the archaeologist at first mistook it for a cave bear tooth!
    I know that some people say that the tooth I am showing in the TV-program was of an animal and not a human. Well, the producer gave it to me in the hospital bed just before the camera started rolling and told me it was a replica of the Denisova tooth. I had no chance to check. I remember I thought it looked a bit different from the Denisova tooth I had seen picture of, but it was found two teeth in the Denisova cave and I thought it might have been a replica of the other!
Across the Pacific
In the show it was said that I had the theory that the Denisova hominins from Siberia could have island-hopped across the Pacific.
    Well, I sailed solo across the Pacific in my 23 feet yacht "Coco Loco", so it is possible to sail on the high seas in small boats. My countryman Thor Heyerdahl of the Kon-Tiki, Ra and Tigris fame also proved that it is possible to sail across the oceans in so called primitive, ancient vessels.
    - The world's oceans were not barriers, but roads, he said.
    The trick is of course to have a vessel that not will sink and also to follow the winds and currents.
Let us say that the Denisovans were able to cross the land going eastwards from the Altai Mountains and then used their technological skills to make seaworthy vessel. But island hopping? If they travelled towards the east they would have to start the crossing of the Pacific from Japan. There are not many islands between Japan and the coast of California! You have the Hawaii islands but they are a bit to the south. And the ocean current is going in a curve northwards. A plane from Tokyo to Honolulu will take about 7 hours (it take 9 hours the other way because of the prevailing winds), a yacht would use about a month.
    Well, since the highest percentage of Denisovan genes are found in Papua New Guinea then might be the Denisovans travelled south and started island hopping from there? Well, the Denisova genes have been found also at some of the Melanesian islands close to Papua New Guinea but so far nothing on the Polynesian and Micronesian islands. And the island hopping would only bring you less than half way across the Pacific - it is just so much empty ocean!
No, I do believe that we have to forget the island hopping. It was not my own words in the show anyway!
    But of course they could have crossed the Pacific Ocean and got to Catalina Island! A northern route following the North Pacific gyre would bring them from Japan to California! A very long and sometimes cold journey but very much possible!
    A direct route pushed by the Equatorial counter current could also have brought a boat from the islands around Papua New Guinea and to the coast of the USA but the landing would have been as bit to the south.
Bones on the Channel Islands
So did the Denisovans reach the western American shores? I do not know if there have been done any DNA-tests of bones on the Channel Islands off the Californian coast. According to the mainstream scientists the ancient people of the islands were all local Indians and the disturbance of dead Native Americans is not allowed due to the repatriation act. But we do have stories, even pictures, of large skeletons!
    Ralph Glidden was an amateur archaeologist who uncovered ancient burial sites on the Channel Islands from 1919 to 1928: In addition to finding thousands of artefacts he also dug up almost 4000 human skeletons. Most of all the male adults were around 7 feet (2.20 m) in hight, and largest skeleton he found was 9 feet 2 inches (2.80 m) tall. He claimed that there once had lived an ancient race of tall and fair haired Indians on the islands.
    According to Pittsburgh Press July 20, 1913 and Daily Telegraph on July 26; a German naturalist named Dr. A.W Furstenan unearthed an 8 foot skeleton on Catalina Island, he had travelled to the island because he while in Mexico had heard a legend of a noble race of giants that had lived on Catalina Island long before the white man had arrived.
    In 1959 several skeletons more than 7 feet tall was discovered on Santa Rosa Island. The tops of the skulls were painted red. The skulls were said to be of "primitive", "otamid" type; sloped forehead, pronounced brow, robust bones, powerful jaw, and a "inca bone" at the back of the skull. Some were also said to have double rows of teeth.
    In 1897 relic hunters stayed three weeks on barren San Nicolas Island and Newark Daily Advocate tells about "Bones of a Giant Race on San Nicolas Island". They found evidence that the island had been inhabited of two or more different races; "one of which was of great size".
Click here for my article about Catalina Island.
Disappeared civilization
In the TV-show it was said that I believed that the Denisovans had landed on Catalina Island; inbreeding with Homo sapiens and creating an ancient breed of giant man that eventually spreads throughout the whole of North America. So if this was the case then we should be able to find ancient sites and artefacts that look the same on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. Might be even simular looking skulls and large skeletons!
    Let us go back to where it should have started; the Altai Mountain in the southern Siberia. It is one of the richest regions in megalithic sites, with huge stone walls, dolmen and menhirs. There are also many legends of ancient giants; they should have built all the megalithic structures - and they are linked to legends of a disappeared civilization.
    "Almas" is Mongolian for "wild man", and they were supposed to be human-like, between five and six and a half feet tall (the male often much taller), their bodies covered with reddish-brown hair, with facial features including a pronounced browridge, flat nose, and a weak chin. Some scientists say that they are a relict population of Neanderthals or surviving specimens of Homo Erectus. They have also been connected to the Denisova Hominins found in Siberia and to the Yeti of the Himalayas. Stories and reports dating from the last fifty years tells about almas around the Caucasus mountains near Russia and the Black Sea.
    "The Narts were a tribe of heroes. They were huge, tall people"; so you can read in the Nart sagas, a series of tales originating from the North Caucasus.
    The Altai Mountains are also known for the many kurgans; mounds of earth and stones raised over a grave (also called tumuli, burrows, burial mounds or cairns). The earliest kurgans are said to have appeared in the 4th millennium BC. The kurgans of Altai Mountains are often called "The Frozen Tombs". One of the largest kurgans is Salbyk kurgan, less than 200 kilometres from the Denisova cave. Before excavations it was 25-30 meter in hight and had a diameter of 500 meters. Salbyk kurgan is surrounded by "balbals" (meaning "ancestor", a kind of stone statue: a stelae/stele) and with a kurgan obelisk on the top.
    The skeletons in the tombs of the kurgans were often found buried in a sitting or hunched position.
I have not been able to find any pictures or reports of giant bones found in the kurgans of Altai Mountains but in the neighbouring country of Azerbaijan a 7 feet 3 inch tall woman from 2000 BC has been found and also from Ukraine and the Don-steppe area large skeletons have been found.
    Channel One, the major broadcasting company in Russia, had a long news-report showing how a team of researchers found giants bones in the wilderness of Borjomi in Georgia on the other side of the Caspian Sea. The person showing the bones and telling that they had belonged to a human giant is the world-famous archaeologist and pantologist Professor Abesalom Vekua!

Pauite Indians
Let us go back to the USA and take a closer look at what we can find there. Are there any legends about ancient human giants? Yes, heaps! Many Native American tribes like Hurons, Iroquois, Tuscaroras, Osage, Omahas and Paiute still remember the legends how their ancestors fought wars against the giants hundreds, might be thousands of years ago.
    Sarah Winnemucca published her book: "Life Among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims" in 1983. She is writing: "My people say that the tribe we exterminated had reddish hair. I have some of their hair, which has been handed down from father to son. I have a dress which has been in our family a great many years, trimmed with the reddish hair."
    According to the legends of the Pauite Indians there was a red-haired tribe of cannibals that harassed them with war, and Sarah Winnemucca wrote that their own tribes one day had enough and banded together. They battled them successfully and drove the last Si-Te Cah, the "tule eaters", to the Lovelock cave. The Pauite filled the cave-entrance with bush and set it ablaze. The Si-Te Cah that tried to get out was shot with arrows and the remaining in the cave suffocated and died.
Sarah Winnemucca
Sarah Winnemucca
    In her book she is also writing that her grandfather was chief of the Paiute nation, and when they were camped near Humboldt Lake with a small portion of his tribe, they saw a party of white settlers coming eastward from California. When the grandfather was told that they had hair on their faces and were white he had jumped up, clasped his hands together and cried aloud: "My white brothers…my long-looked for white brothers have come at last!"
    Sarah Winnemucca is said to have been a full-blooded Indian but the title of her book and also her features hint that her distant relatives indeed might have had brothers looking very different to the Paiute!
Lovelock sandal
Lovelock sandal
The Lovelock cave is real
Well, we know that the Lovelock cave is real.
Just below the cave an extremely large pestle made of pink rhyolite was found. It weighs 12.5 kg (27 lbs.) and is 66 cm long. It would be as good as impossible for a normal sized person to use this pestle!
    Several sandals made of tule fiber were found in the cave, and one reported at over 15 inches (38 cm) in length. That would be a shoe size of 22 in modern times but how could you find a shoe of that size today? The common size for a person 6 feet tall (180cm) is size 10-11!
    We know that there have been found human remains in the cave but if any of them were after the red haired tule-eaters of gigantic size is not so certain: James H. Hart, one of the two miners who excavated the cave in 1911, wrote in his report that they found "a striking looking body of a man six feet six inches tall, his body was mummified and his hair distinctly red". But he also wrote that the mummy was boiled and destroyed by a local fraternal lodge, which wanted the skeleton for initiation purposes.
Click here for my article about Lovelock cave/giants.
Indian mounds
Morhiss mound
Morhiss Mound
Spanish Hill mound
Spanish Hill Mound
Conneaut mound
Conneaut Mound
To bury their most prominent leaders in kurgans were, as we have seen, common among the ancient people of Altai Mountains and elsewhere in south Siberia. In ancient North America this was also a common practise but here the burial mounds are called "Indian Mounds", and they are mostly made from earth.
     How many Indian mounds there once were in USA is impossible to say today but it could have been several hundred thousand. There were once estimated to be around 10,000 Indian mounds and earthworks in the central Ohio valley alone!
    We call them Indian mounds but the Indians, what we today call Native Americans, said that it was not their ancestors that had built the mounds but the people before them. Yes, the old men told the first settlers that they had no knowledge of the former inhabitants; they only knew the legends about them. It was not their custom to bury the dead people in tombs. It had happened that some of the chiefs and other respected warriors had been buried in existing, old mound and that some even tried to make a mound to copy the powerful ancient giants but it was not their custom. The oldest, as far as we know, mound in the USA is dated to about 6.000 BC.
    The first settlers did not have much time to worry about ancient mounds; they needed the land for farming, for roads, houses, factories and cities. Well, some people did; the treasure hunters looking for gold or other valuable items they could sell, often to overseas collectors or museums. The settles just dug the mounds away, levelled them or used the soil for their farms.
Crumbled to dust
Most people of those days did not have much respect for Indians - dead or not. Most of the skeletons were just scuffled to the side or trampled to pieces. But of course some people noticed that many of the skeletons were very large; of people that was so much taller than themselves. Often the heads were very large and elongated, and it seemed like the skeletons sometimes had six fingers and toes and also double set of teeth. It seemed like that the oldest skeletons crumbled to dust as soon as the mounds were opened. And they were also often the largest.
"The eyes of that species of extinct giants, whose bones fill the mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now." Abraham Lincoln - 1848.
    The large skeletons started to create some interest in the middle of the 1800s. The settlers were well and truly settled and the newspapers were up and running. When the Smithsonian Institution was established in 1846, people started to send the museum the most complete skulls and/or skeletons, often together with other findings in the mounds (most often with a hope of getting paid). And their field agents were sent to take a look at the most interesting mounds, even if they seemed to pay little attention to the skeletons. They definitely stayed away from using the word "giants" - for them the large skeletons were just tall Indians.
Tall Indians
The first explorers and settlers to North America did not pay much attention to the mounds but they definitely paid attention to the Indians. From 1600 or so the English settlement was contested by several tribes, with more that 40 wars! 20.000 settlers shall have been killed and more than 50.000 Indians.
    The first explorer were surpised to see that some of the Indian chiefs were very tall.
De Soto and Tuscaloosa
de Soto and Tuscaloosa
    The Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto, travelled 1540-1542 in the area that much later became the southeast United States. He saw people living in fortified towns with large mounds that he believed were foundations for their temples. Many of the Indian chiefs were taller than their tribe members and also the Spaniards.
     An Indian named Tuscaloosa was the chief (cacique) a large Mississippian area in what today is the state of Alabama. Tuscaloosa was very tall. Garcilaso de la Vega, who accompanied De Soto, wrote that his physical appearance: "were like those of his son, for both were more than a half-yard taller than all the others. He appeared to be a giant, or rather was one, and his limbs and face were in proportion to the height of his body".
    The Spanish were received well by Tuscaloosa in his village but when de Soto demanded porters and women, the chief said that he was accustomed to being served, and not vice versa. Tuskaloosa was taken hostage but later in the Indian town of Mabila, it came to a battle. Tuskaloosa's son was killed but the giant chief himself should have managed to escape.
Powhatan and Smith
Powhatan and Smith
Susquehannock - European
Susquehannock - European
    Captain John Smith (1580-1631) was an English soldier, explorer and author. He played an important part in the establishment the first permanent English settlement in North America; Jamestown, and he was later knighted as an admiral of New England. John Smith encountered an Indians tribe of unusual size: here is from his his desciptions of the Susquehannock Indians:
    "Such great and well proportioned men, are seldome seene, for they seemed like Giants to the English, yea and to the neighbours: yet seemed of an honest and simple disposition, with much adoe restrained from adoring the discoverers as Gods. Those are the most strange people of all those Countries, both in language and attire; for their language it may well beseeme their proportions, sounding from them, as it were a great voice in a vault, or cave, as an Eccho." "The picture of the greatest of them is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose leg was 3 quarters of a yard about: and all the rest of his limbes so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the godliest man that ever we beheld."
    In December 1607 Johns Smith was captured. He was taken to the chief of the Powhatans and later claimned that his life was saved by the chief's daughter, Pocahontas. Well, we might know Pocahontas best from the 1995 animated film produced by Walt Disney, but the real Pocahontas was captured by the English in 1613, she later married the tobacco planter John Rolfe.
Capture white women
We have seen in old cowboy-films how the Indians capture white women. Well, those films never give any true picture of the Indians but it is a fact that young white girls were captured and married to warriors and chiefs. One reason given is that the Indians needed to replenish losses suffered in the warfare against the settlers or neighbouring tribes. Another reason might be that some of the white people reminded the Indians about the people they had learned about in the old tribal stories - the mighty first people of the country. By getting babies with the white girls they might get blood making their offspring tall, strong and with godlike power!
Captain Cook killed in Hawaii
Captain Cook in Hawaii
    It is no secret that native women in many developing countries even today are dreaming about marrying white men. Of course many times to flee from poverty but I have through my travels also learned that many natives consider the white people to be closer to the Gods. And from the history books we have learned how many Indians in both North and South America, as well as the natives on the Pacific Islands, believed that the first white explorers were their old Gods returning!
    Or - might be it originally was the other way around; that the giants who came sailing across the ocean needed women? We read in the legends that there seemed to be only male giants that landed on the islands and the Americas - so might be it was their blood that made the chiefs taller than the common Indian? Might be that is why it seems to be that the skeletons in the oldest mounds are the largest?
Giants' graves in California.
Newspaper headline
Skulls of cavemen
New Age Magazine, 1913
Head and sholder above modern man
Bruce Herald, 1899
Bill and Jim Vieira
Bill and Jim Vieira
Lee Berger showing bone
Lee Berger showing bone
Newspaper articles
There are so many old newspaper articles telling about giants bones found in mounds of the USA. Jim Vieira and Micah Evers have so far collected more than 1000, and other researchers plus myself have found a few as well.
    So what does the scientists say about all these articles about skeletons of gigantic size?
    Well, here is from a reply I got from the Tennessee Division of Archaeology:
    "These reports predate the advent of professional, rigorous archaeological scholarship, and none of the supposed examples survive for re-examination by modern physical anthropologists. Although the myth of giants inhabiting the region is intriguing to many people and has a sizable internet following, there is no credible evidence to support this claim."
    Of course; some articles might be hoaxes, some might be wild exaggerations, some might sensationalized to sell papers and some might be edited versions of articles already printed, but the
number is just too huge to claim that they all are false. And many of the persons in the newspapers articles are easily confirmed as real and serious people, like doctors studying the skeletons and taking measurements. Would they not have protested if newspapers used their names in articles that were not true?
    Some of the articles have picture showing large bones and skulls - in a time where digital photo editing did not exist! Some with a measuring stick along the skeleton. And it is not only newspaper articles; there are many reports written by historical associations and state bodies. Yes, large bones are even mentioned in Smithsonian's yearly reports, here is from the 12th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-1891: "Near the original surface, 10 or 12 feet from the center, on the lower side, lying at full length on its back, was one of the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet."
    Jim and his brother Bill spoke on the show with anthropologist Professor Todd R. Disotell at the New York University's Center for the Study of Human Origins, and he said that it is extremely unlikely that a race of giants has existed but that unlikely becomes absolutely true with physical evidence.
     Well, he should know that two of the world most famous scientists when it comes to ancient human races, Abesalom Vekua of Georgia and Lee Berger of South Africa, can show us bones of what they themselves categorise as giants, and everybody is welcomed to see the fossilized bones if they do not believes in TV-reports or pictures!
    I also believe that it was said at the show said that if there was found skeletons of giants then they would be on display so that people could come and see them and generate income for the museums. Well - is it so easy to forget about the about The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
California giant on display
     There have been large skeleton on display at museums, we even have pictures of them, but today this is no longer allowed! An interesting question is of course if the act will be in force if some of the large bones of the mounds are dated to be more than 13.000 years old because at that time there should be no Native Americans in North America!
Smithsonian denies
Why is it that Smithsonian today denies that they have any knowledge of giant skeletons - that there are no records of large bones in their archives?
    Dr. Greg Little is a psychologist, who also is an explorer and documentary maker. He did a review of Smithsonian's two major reports from their mound investigations; the 1887 and 1894 Bureau of Ethnology Annual Reports. He noted that the Smithsonian's field agents had found 17 skeletons that were close to 7 feet or taller. Here is his conclusion: "In essence, for the Smithsonian to have found 17 skeletons that were 7 feet tall by chance alone, they would have had to excavate 2.5 million skeletons."
    Dr. Little also found another report concerning the Chickasawba Mound in Blytheville, Arkansas, telling that many large skeletons were found at the site. He travelled to see the mound and also visited the nearby state Archaeology Field Station. They handed him the same report he had seen; relating that many skeletons ranging from 8 to 9 feet in length had been found there. As late as 1976 a 7-foot-tall skeleton was found at the site.
So why is it that some researchers claim that Smithsonian have giant skeletons stacked away in closed- off rooms? And why has several researchers, me included, experienced that the institution today denies that they ever had tall skeletons - even if their own old reports say that they have? Is Smithsonian behind a giant cover-up?
    Recently we could on the internet read an article telling that that Smithsonian admits to destruction of thousands of giant human skeletons in Early 1900's and that a US Supreme Court ruling has forced the Smithsonian to release classified paper showing that the institution was involved in a major historical cover up:
    "There has been a major cover up by western archaeological institutions since the early 1900's to make us believe that America was first colonized by Asian peoples migrating through the Bering Strait 15,000 years ago, when in fact, there are hundreds of thousands of burial mounds all over America which the Natives claim were there a long time before them, and that show traces of a highly developed civilization, complex use of metal alloys and where giant human skeleton remains are frequently found but still go unreported in the media and news outlets" American Institution of Alternative Archeology (AIAA) spokesman, James Churward explains.
Lost continent of Mu
Lost continent of Mu
    Well, the allegations might very well be true but the article and court case is not! There is no American Institution of Alternative Archeology and James Churchward, the author of "The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man", died in 1936!
    It is interesting, though, that the person behind the hoax chooses to user Churchward's (misspelled) name because if there was a lost continent in the Pacific then we would have to rewrite all our theories about human development and migration! Churchward himself claimed to have gained his knowledge of this lost land after befriending an Indian priest, who taught him to read a lost language that made it possible for Churchward to decipher ancient tablets with the story about Mu.

    If it is true the Smithsonian and other institutions is behind a cover-up when it comes to giants then the question must be: Why?
    Is it because that the existence of a race of giants does not fit in the theory of evolution?

New species
Well, since year 2000 the anthropologists have discovered 8 new species of hominins. The theory that they and all other human species wandered out of Africa is getting more and more difficult to explain. New findings and DNA-testing of ancient bones have also forced the mainstream scientists to change their view on the first hominins time and time again. The Neanderthal was first believe to be much taller than us homo sapiens but with smaller brain. Then the theory was that they were about our size or slightly smaller but that they had larger brain. Now a theory is that archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals had a brain of about the same size but that the Neanderthals had a much larger and more powerful cerebellum. And we all remember drawings of Neanderthals as stupid cave dwellers with almost as much hair as a monkey. Well, now some scientists believe that it us who were the stupid ones while the Neanderthal had a language, quite advanced tools, made beautiful art, cooked their vegetables, lived in social groups, and buried their dead. That they even had a good knowledge of the sun and the stars and were capable of building boats!
Sapiens and Neanderthal
Sapiens and Neanderthal
Elongated skull Siberia
Elongated skull Siberia
Chinook Indian, USA
Chinook Indian, USA
Baby, South America
Baby, South America
    So might be it was the Neanderthal and not the Denisovans that found the way across the ocean and ended up in the Americas? Might be. But so far it is the Denisovans that seems to have been taller and more robust than the other species of early hominins with capacity and brain to use tools to make boats.
    Excavations of the Denisova cave and DNA-testing of the bones found there and in the area around it shows that Denisovans, Homo sapiens and Neanderthal most probably interbred. The researchers are quite sure that the Denisovans produced hybrids with us human - and it might have been Neanderthal genes in the mix as well, plus the genes from a mysterious species of hominin that so far only has shown up in the labs.

Lost species
When we are talking about lost or mysterious hominins I just have to mention elongated skulls. You find them as good as all over the world, also among the Native Americans.
     The conservative scientists claim that there never have been people with naturally elongated skulls; that it just was a custom among some people to bind the skulls of their children. But why should they have a custom that must have been very impractical and even painful to their children. Aesthetically more pleasing? Signify group affiliation? Look more intelligent? Demonstrate social status? Might be in many cases but it must also be allowed to point out that it might have been trying to replicate people that looked like that: People that was born with long skulls; admired humans that even was looked upon as gods. Lost species of humans.
    There has been found skulls in South America with naturally elongated skulls, with a cranial volume too big to be caused by manmade cranial deformation. There has also been found mummies of babies and children to young to have an elongation performed on them. Joseph Pentland from Ireland writes about adult skulls which he excavated near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia in 1827: "..these skulls belonged to a race of mankind now extinct, and which differed from any now existing".
     Who were they? Well, shall we take a guess that they might have been Denisovans or Denisovan/Neanderthal/Homo Sapiens hybrids?
Six Fingers
Six fingered statue from Ukraine Sky Cachina
Sky Cachina
Six fingers on Catalina Island.
Six fingers, Catalina
My research on giants started many years ago when I discovered that many ancient statues all over the world have six fingers. Most often they depicted local gods but they were also very tall - what we can call giants.
    A little figure that supposedly dates back to 4,000 BC was once found in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. It has six fingers. Most people are not so interested in the fingers but that it seems to be wearing a space suit.
    Another small figure that has fix fingers is of the Sky Kachina. The legends of the Hopi Indians in North America tell that they originally lived in a land in the middle of the Pacific Ocean but had to flee when the sea rose. The God that helped them get from island to island across the ocean was Sky Kachina, and she had six fingers and could fly.
    Some say that the existence of evil men with six fingers is why some Native American tribes raised their hands when they greeted strangers: to show that they did not descend from them!

    Researcher and author L.A. Marzulli, who travelled to Catalina Island to take a closer look at Ralph Glidden's pictures of very large skeletons, also discovered that at least one of them had six fingers.
The ancient culture
"Terry", you might ask, "you are talking about six fingers and large skeletons but where are all the megalithic structures - if they brought their culture from the other side of the ocean why can you only show us mounds of soil and not gigantic walls of stone?"
    Well, you can find megaliths in North America but most of them are in Mexico. In the US there are not so many - not today anyway. A reason is again of course that the settlers did not have time to take interest of the structures that they found dotting their newfound country. They dynamited the stones and used them as landfill for roads, they drilled and cut the stones and used them in churches and official buildings!
    And of course; if they came across the sea from Asia because they fled from an enormous catastrophe they would not have with them all the "ordinary people" that had helped (voluntary or not) to build the walls, dolmen and statues!
    The country might also have been empty if they came as early as for 20.000 or even more years ago; and when the people that became the Native Americans arrived later on they might not have been so keen on slaving stones! And the offsprings of the Denisovans marrying with the Indians might have lost interest in making megalithic structures or even forgotten how to do it!
Dolmen, Salem
Dolmen, Salem
Burnt Hill Stone Circle
Burnt Hill Stone Circle
Rockwall, Texas
Rockwall, Texas
    But you will indeed find some megaliths in the US and I will give you just a few sample:
    Probably the most well-known example of a dolmen is the found in North Salem in northern Westchester County, NY. An almost 100-ton boulder of granite is placed on standing stones of marble. A sign close to the dolmen says that the stone was placed like that not by man but because of ice-age. It is simular to dolmen found all over the world - in Korea you can find almost 40.000 of them - and they did not have any ice age there..!
    You will also be able to find ancient stone circles in the US. One of the better samples is the Burnt Hill Stone Circle in Heath, Massachusetts. And here the scientists agree that they are pre-Columbian. But the Native Americans do not have any remembrance of a culture of raising stones.
    So what about megalithic walls? Well, a 20 mile long megalithic wall was discovered near Rockwall in Texas about 1852. Mainstream archaeologists tell us that the stone-wall is a natural formation but might be they are wrong because the wall is partly natural and partly manmade? Video here!

    Ancient sites expert and archaeologist James Whittall says the following about the megaliths: "I find it difficult to distinguish the North American examples from the European ones and I believe that both sets were produced by ancient builders who shared a common culture."
All cultures
You might still claim that there should be more megalithic structures to be found in the US since we find so many more in Mexico and in South America. Well, the scientists now seem to find evidence that our planet has been through series of major catastrophes; large comets splashing down creating tsunamis hundreds of meters tall washing about everything away, solar bursts that have melted ice and created major earthquakes and even rapid movement of the tectonic plates making mountains rise and fall.
    Yes, Thor Heyerdahl (who was more a researcher than an adventurer, he saw the ocean crossings in Kon-Tiki, Ra and Tigis necessary to prove his theories on human migration in pre-history) asked me if everything could be going round in cycles - like a wheel turning round and round when it comes to our spaceship Earth and us humans on it. He knew very well that almost all cultures have legends and religious scriptures telling that we humans have been trough several periods of extinction to almost the last man. Like the Aztec; they believed that we have been trough four major periods; that we now are in the 5th "Sun". And that we in the first period were giants.
James Churchward
Ica stone
Other way around
Might be it was the other way around; that the Denisovans originated in the Americas? Could it at all be possible that they lived at the same time as the dinosaurs? Is this why some of the (controversial) Ica-stones are depicting a giant of a man hunting dinosaurs?
    Did the original Denisovans of one unknown reason migrate to the north and then east across the Bering Land Bridge? According to new research: Siberia went though a period of warm weather about 30.000 years ago, and the land bridge between Alaska and Russia was dry land all the way.
    The last ace age in North Ameirica reached its greatest extent between about 22,000 years ago. Then the ice started to melt. The scientists say that melting brought about floods that occurred approximately 40 times between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago.

    Did the collapsing ice dams at the now vanished Lake Agassiz bring a catastrophic flood that swept the remains of their civilisation, like megalithic structures, away?
    And then, when the Siberia was getting colder and the ice had melted in North America; did they return to their homeland by boat?
James Churchward
Thor Heyerdahl
Who knows?
The major problem when it comes to the human development can be that the timeline can be wrong. Our dating of artefacts and ancient human remains might be more or less off if the conditions on our planet have changed dramatically. Like if the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased or decreased. Yes, changes in the atmosphere by the so called greenhouse gases like CO2 and methane is what the scientists now believe might have started and ended both the ice ages and the warm periods!
    So who knows?
    Heyerdahl said that the oceans were roads and not barriers in the ancient times. And through more and more advanced DNA-testing we seem to discover that we humans have been here, there and everywhere on the globe - long before we were supposed to have left Africa! So who knows? Was it us Homo sapiens that travelled the world, or the Neanderthals, the Denisovans or the unknown, mysterious species?
    And should we care?
    Well, Heyerdahl also said that without knowing the past is impossible to say something about our future - so I believe that it is important that we are trying hard to disclose what seems to be a hidden past!
    My job is to ask the questions - and hopefully we will get some answers.


Terje Dahl

Latest news:
Denisova tiaraThe Siberian Times (06 December 2018):
50,000 year old tiara made of woolly mammoth ivory found in world famous Denisova Cave.
"Extraordinary tiara made for a man found in the Denisovan layer of the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia, reports the Siberian Times today. Archaeologists working at the now famous site of the Denisovans have made another incredible discovery. It is a fragment of a large tiara made from mammoth ivory thought to be around 50,000 years old. This makes it the oldest example of a tiara anywhere in the world. When found the ivory piece was flattened out, but soaking it allowed it to resume its original curved form. Its great size suggests it was worn by a male to keep hair from going in their eyes."

To get to my investigation on gianst in the USA - click here
To get to the newspaper articles about giants - click here
What do you think?
Do you have any ideas, thoughts or facts - please send them to Terje Dahl: terje@sydhav.no
Here are the ideas, thoughts and facts our readers have sent in:
We have many strange stone structures in the Connecticut River Valley, some that required moving immense stones, not a practically useful pursuit for New England's settlers.
Thanks for sharing your fascinating research on the giants. I think the interbreeding between Denisovans, Neanderthal, and homo sapiens could very well account for a hybrid species of "Giant" individuals. There is also another unidentified hominid species (Species X)that was also in the mix. Here is a link to an archaeological discovery made in San Diego that just might be proof that Neanderthals and/or Denisovans were here in America 100,00 to 130,000 years ago!
Maybe the Neanderthal's, Denisovans, and species x were here in America long before anyone else. This would explain the Native American oral traditions of Giants being in the land when they arrived. If this was the case, there would likely be interbreeding among the Native American people with these other species.
I've researched many old archaeological accounts of giants being discovered in the mounds throughout the USA and many of the descriptions of the skulls sound like they are neanderthal like (massive jaws, pronounced brow ridge, robust skeletal structure). Though we now know that neanderthals were much smarter than originally thought, they were also shorter than us. These giant discoveries, in my opinion, point not to neanderthals (as the bones were taller) but point to a mixture of interbreeding between species. The double rows of teeth often reported is a fairly common in Neanderthals (called Hyperdontia).
Also, Dennis Standford (Ironically of the Smithsonian)has a very solid hypothesis that there were migrations coming to prehistoric America from Europe (Solutreans) and there is much evidence they left by them in the form of Clovis spear points, which are found in Europe (Spain/France)and not found in Asia, which would be the case if everyone was coming from Siberia.
There have been some other interesting theories that the giants were the offspring of the Grigori (Watchers) and were known as the Nephilim and were chased out of the Holy land (as mentioned in the Bible)and they were some of the various tribes such as the Ammonites. These giants made it to America and interbred with the locals and did a lot of copper mining at lake Michigan.
I've come across way too many archaeological discoveries about the giants and too many accounts of them in native traditions for this to all be just "Tall Tales" (no pun intended...LOL.)
Also, in the course of my research, I've across a number of articles of "Little People" discoveries in the USA. Some of the oral accounts among the Cherokee tribes talk of their ancestors encountering tribes of little people; some peaceful (black haired), and others who were violent (red haired with "red whiskers"). There was a North Carolina University that was undergoing construction back in the 40's or 50's and the construction workers cleared an old "Indian mound" on the campus and discovered little man made tunnels under the mound and college campus that were about 3' in height. There were also small bones found, that a number of witnesses claimed were "pygmy", childlike skulls with wisdom teeth in them. Of course, after the archaeologists picked through the bones they all disappeared (Smithsonian?). I very well think ancient America also could have had Homo floresiensis (Hobbit) like those found in Indonesia. In fact, I think it is possible they could have migrated here just like neanderthal, Denisovans, species x, and homo sapiens.
Anyway, I could keep going about these discoveries for hours, but I just want to say thank you for sharing your research! There is a hidden history of the Americas that is being either ignored or covered up (I think covered up). I will be releasing my research within the next year or two to share my discoveries with others who are interested in this topic.
Best wishes to you on your continued research!
Very interesting theory of the ancient tall people spreading from the CA coast inland to be the Mound Builders of America.
The sunken land must be the continent of Zelandia which science now admits to.
Science also understands the a 'warm' period follows an ice-over on Earth, from which the mammals are smaller. Due to radiation or radon perhaps?
I feel that the possibility of other human forms are open, who are we to put a definition on what could be .
Patricia Henry

I have the greatest respect for him, but didn't Thor Hyerdahl make some money from his many books?
Henri Schuler

I can accept that there are hybrid Giants living today.....Satan is IMO capable of much that we know nothing of yet.....I have reasons to believe Bigfoot could very well be included along with other reports of living hybrid-giants over the past decades.
In his autobiography, The Life of Honorable William F. Cody, Buffalo Bill recounted the following interesting experience that occurred while he was still acting as a scout for the U.S. Army: "While we were in the sand hills, scouting the Niobrara country, the Pawnee Indians brought into camp some very large bones, one of which the surgeon of the expedition pronounced to be the thigh-bone of a human being. The Indians claimed that the bones they had found were those of a person belonging to a race of people who a long time ago lived in this country; that there was once a race of men on the earth whose size was about three times that of an ordinary man, and they were so swift and powerful that they could run along-side of a buffalo, and, taking the animal in one arm, could tear off a leg and eat the meat as they walked." Here
Hiram Jacques
I think you should do another SHOW!!
Marty Frazier
see .....www.onthetrailofthenephilim.com
Also see at this site www.stevequayle.com ......" GIANTS AND ANCIENT HISTORY"
I have recently posted on my facebook page that if you wanted to hide something, you should hide it in plain view and that the Smithsonian still had or are still in possession of the giant remains found. Not long after my post I found that the Smithsonian has admitted to destroying the bones. All I can do is ask the question, how can we verify that information. I am a Christian so I believe the Word of God when He says there were giants in those days and afterward because of a second influx of fallen ones or angels. If it is proven that these giants existed, our world would have to rewrite allot of history and teach differently, that causes great discomfort to those in power.......my thoughts, my opinion and you know what they say about opinions! :)
Deborah Koller

Come on with more comments, folks!

The Criel Mound was excavated in 1883-84 under the auspices of the US Bureau of Ethnology and the supervision of Col. P.W. Norris. The excavation was performed by Professor Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution. Inside the mound, Professor Thomas found thirteen skeletons: two near the top of the mound, and eleven at the base. The skeletons at the base consisted of a single very large skeleton at the center, surrounded by ten other skeletons arranged in a spoke-like pattern, with their feet pointing toward the central skeleton.

The skeleton in the middle of the vault was of unusual size, measuring seven feet six inches (2.30) in length and nineteen inches between the shoulder sockets.



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